{"status":"OK","msg":"Details loaded!","speaker":{"id":1,"speaker":"Giovanni Ettore Gigante","sarx_lecture":"Advanced techniques for microanalitical mapping using conventional and non conventional sources","sarx_lecture_abstract":"","earj_lecture":"Welding an soldering by the Moche pre-columbian civilization in the. tombs \"SE\u00d1OR DE SIP\u00c1N\" and \"SE\u00d1ORA DE CAO\"","earj_lecture_abstract":"On the north coast of present-day Peru flourished between 1200 BC and 1375 AD approximately, various relevant civilizations : Cupisnique (1200-200 BC) Chav\u00edn (1000-200 BC), Vic\u00fas and Fr\u00edas (200 BC - 300 AD), Moche (100 B.C. to 600 A.D), Sic\u00e1n (700-1375 AD) . \r\n Among the, the most important, from the point of view of metallurgical ability, was the Moche civilization (also called Mochica) .\r\n The Moche civilization flourished in areas south of the Vic\u00fas, in the Moche and Chicama valleys, where its great ceremonial centres have been discovered from around 100 BC to 600 AD, producing painted pottery, monuments and gold ornaments. The Vic\u00fas and Moche cultures thrived within a relatively short distance of each other. The Moche were known as sophisticated metal smiths , both in terms of their technology, and the beauty of the produced jewels. \r\n The Moche metalworking ability was impressively demonstrated when Walter Alva and co - workers discovered in 1987 the \u201cTumbas Reales de Sip\u00e1n\u201d and, more recently, when Regulo Franco Jordan discovered in 2005 the tomb of the \u201cLady of Cao . Spectacular gold and silver funerary ornaments were excavated, and are now exposed in the Museum \u201cTumbas Reales de Sip\u00e1n\u201d in Lambayeque, close to Chiclayo and in the site Museum of Cao, about 60 km north to Trujillo . The two tombs are dated approximately 3rd- 4th Century AD. \r\n As explained in a previous paper , also after five campaigns of analysis of the artifacts from the tombs of Sip\u00e1n and Ciao, many questions remained open, i.e.:\r\n-why the Moche used to put relatively high quantities of Gold, up to about 30%, in the Silver sheets of the tomb of the lady of Cao ?\r\n-why the Golds from the tomb of Cao have all approximately the same composition, differently from the tomb of Sip\u00e1n, where the Gold composition is completely erratic ? \r\n-How were welded and soldered the Gold and Silver sheets ? \r\nTo try to answer to the last question a sub-millimetric EDXRF portable equipment was developed to focus the X-rays onto a surface of about 1 mm2 and carry out detailed step by step millimetric measurements to scan the Au\/Ag interface of several nose ornaments ; further radiographic measurements were carried out with special attention to the interfaces. ","country":"Italia","institution":"Sapienza University of Rome (Italia)","earj":1,"sarx":1,"duration":30,"short_bio":"Born 1948, graduated in physics in the 1971 at the Sapienza University of Rome.
\r\n1972-76 fellow and after researcher in the Faculty of Medicine of Sapienza.
\r\n1976-86 assistant professor then 1983 associate professor at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of L'Aquila
\r\n1986- 2008 at the Faculty of Science-Department of Physics of Sapienza.
\r\n2008 full professor of Applied Physics at the Department of Basic and Applied Sciences of Sapienza University of Rome.
\r\nHis research interest has been focused on the development of ND techniques, applied nuclear physics, imaging and image processing, archaeometry and conservation. He is author of a large number of papers concerning the x ray physics and the development of techniques in journals of physics and applied physics and, more recently, on technique for image acquisition and processing. He is involved in some international collaboration and was invited speaker in national and international conferences in biomedical physics and archaeometry.
\r\nHis main activity in the last period was in the development of university curricula for the education of scientists for the conservation and restoration of Cultural Heritage at national and international level. In the 2001 started in Italy the new higher education system following the Bologna Process of harmonization of higher education in Europe, in this transformation a specific class for the education of scientists and conservator-restorers was created by Italian Ministry of Research and University.
\r\nHe was promoter and first coordinator of the Didactic Area of Technology for Conservation and Restoration of Faculty of Science of Sapienza University of Rome part of world.
\r\nHe is now responsible for the European Master in Archaeological Material Sciences (ARCHMAT) of the UE, open to students of all part of world.
\r\nHe is involved in teaching activity in some graduation and post-graduation courses: a) Physical Methods for the Cultural Heritage (teaching non-destructive methods for the study of work of art with special emphasis for the x ray techniques); b) Archaeometry at the second year of the master course in Applied Science for Cultural Heritage (advanced methods for the characterization of material and the new prospects in this field); c) Image analysis and image processing at the post-graduation level (teaching the basic of image analysis and digitalisation and the image processing techniques).
\r\nIts activity is demonstrated by participation in international conferences as a speaker, the presentation of several research projects also outside the European Union and the drafting of some chapters of books on advanced scientific methodologies for the study and control of Cultural Heritage.
\r\n
\r\nDepartment of Basic and Applied Science for Engineering - Sapienza University of Roma,
\r\nSquare A. Moro, 2 00185 Roma, Tel. 06-4991-3954 -8585 FAX 06-4463154 Personal page: (http:\/\/www.sbai.uniroma1.it\/~giovanni.gigante\/homepage.html)
\r\nE-Mail: giovanni.gigante@uniroma1.it
\r\nHome: Via E. Petrolini, 49 - 00197 Roma Tel. 06-45434502","cvlink":"http:\/\/www.sbai.uniroma1.it\/~giovanni.gigante\/homepage-en.html","picture":"http:\/\/sarx2016.nbcgib.uesc.br\/speaker\/1\/picture","email":"giovanni.gigante@uniroma1.it","cvfile":null,"created_at":"-0001-11-30 00:00:00","updated_at":"2016-08-22 15:43:52","lecture":"Welding an soldering by the Moche pre-columbian civilization in the. tombs \"SE\u00d1OR DE SIP\u00c1N\" and \"SE\u00d1ORA DE CAO\"","abstract":"On the north coast of present-day Peru flourished between 1200 BC and 1375 AD approximately, various relevant civilizations : Cupisnique (1200-200 BC) Chav\u00edn (1000-200 BC), Vic\u00fas and Fr\u00edas (200 BC - 300 AD), Moche (100 B.C. to 600 A.D), Sic\u00e1n (700-1375 AD) .
\r\n Among the, the most important, from the point of view of metallurgical ability, was the Moche civilization (also called Mochica) .
\r\n The Moche civilization flourished in areas south of the Vic\u00fas, in the Moche and Chicama valleys, where its great ceremonial centres have been discovered from around 100 BC to 600 AD, producing painted pottery, monuments and gold ornaments. The Vic\u00fas and Moche cultures thrived within a relatively short distance of each other. The Moche were known as sophisticated metal smiths , both in terms of their technology, and the beauty of the produced jewels.
\r\n The Moche metalworking ability was impressively demonstrated when Walter Alva and co - workers discovered in 1987 the \u201cTumbas Reales de Sip\u00e1n\u201d and, more recently, when Regulo Franco Jordan discovered in 2005 the tomb of the \u201cLady of Cao . Spectacular gold and silver funerary ornaments were excavated, and are now exposed in the Museum \u201cTumbas Reales de Sip\u00e1n\u201d in Lambayeque, close to Chiclayo and in the site Museum of Cao, about 60 km north to Trujillo . The two tombs are dated approximately 3rd- 4th Century AD.
\r\n As explained in a previous paper , also after five campaigns of analysis of the artifacts from the tombs of Sip\u00e1n and Ciao, many questions remained open, i.e.:
\r\n-why the Moche used to put relatively high quantities of Gold, up to about 30%, in the Silver sheets of the tomb of the lady of Cao ?
\r\n-why the Golds from the tomb of Cao have all approximately the same composition, differently from the tomb of Sip\u00e1n, where the Gold composition is completely erratic ?
\r\n-How were welded and soldered the Gold and Silver sheets ?
\r\nTo try to answer to the last question a sub-millimetric EDXRF portable equipment was developed to focus the X-rays onto a surface of about 1 mm2 and carry out detailed step by step millimetric measurements to scan the Au\/Ag interface of several nose ornaments ; further radiographic measurements were carried out with special attention to the interfaces. "}}