{"status":"OK","msg":"Details loaded!","speaker":{"id":8,"speaker":"Ignasi Queralt","sarx_lecture":"X-Ray spectroscopy in forensics","sarx_lecture_abstract":"X-ray spectroscopy is used widely in forensic science. Main strengths are its non-destructive nature, thus preserving crime evidences, its ability to identify chemical compounds, to determine elemental chemistry and, in some cases, elemental speciation. Moreover the versatility of the X-ray techniques permits the analysis of very diverse materials, -inorganic, organic, metals-, in powder, solid or liquid forms. \r\n\r\nDifferent X-ray spectroscopy based tools, just as many other analytical techniques, have been used in forensic science for several decades. Classical X-ray based techniques used in forensic work are X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray imaging and Energy dispersion X-ray Emission linked to an electron microscope (SEM-EDX). These complementary techniques are mainly used in micro- and macrotrace analysis. Conventional XRF, whilst attractive for the forensic analyst, sometimes cannot be applied because in the majority of cases crime scene specimens are microscopic in nature. A common bench-top XRF system has an analysis spot of perhaps 2\u20134 cm, and is unsuited to perform, for instance, analysis of a 100 \u03bcm fragment. \r\n\r\nDuring the last twenty years, noticeable development was made in the instrumental aspects of X-ray spectrometry, especially in the improvement of X-ray optics and detection systems. All this resulted in a wide variety of instrumentation becoming available today. Significant advances in focusing optics (development of collimators and polycapillary lenses) have promoted the design of micro beam sources or the analysis of small regions by X-ray instrumentation employing conventional X-ray tubes as the source of primary radiation. The use of automatized XYZ stages allows the possibility to do point, line profile or mapping analyses. A microscopic particle from a crime scene can be directly analysed without any sample preparation, simply located using optical cameras, and subsequently characterized for elemental content. \r\n\r\nAlong the presentation a selection of real forensic evidence types and their analysis by XRS methods (XRD, XRF, micro-EDXRF) will be described, such as glassy fragments, cosmetics, healthcare products, gunshot residues and counterfeit currency.","earj_lecture":"X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY IN THE STUDY OF OLD CERAMIC TILES","earj_lecture_abstract":"X-ray spectroscopy (XRS) is used in the present ceramic industry to non-destructively analyse raw materials, to control the mineral transformations during firing, to characterize chemicals for the glazing and the quality of finishes. X-ray spectrometry is a technique that lends itself well to these needs. Generally speaking, this technique is nondestructive, rapid and can address some very important issues such as elemental composition, the crystallographic arrangement of those elements, and the quantification of elements and compounds. The two main tools of X-ray spectroscopy with application for the study of ceramic products are X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). These technologies are well-established and used in many other industries to answer the same questions of elemental composition and how those elements are structured.\r\n\r\nAll ceramics have one thing in common, which is the thermal transformation of the original soft minerals to produce a hard compact body, constituted to form a hard solid consisting of minerals other than those existing in the raw materials. The final constituents of ceramic will depend of the nature of raw materials and the thermal treatment. If we think about some of the historic ceramics, we can try to investigate from the remains the thermal treatment applied to shape the ceramic body. XRD is suited to identify the types of clays in the raw materials but also the mineral composition of final ceramic product.\r\n\r\nXRF spectroscopy has been applied in present ceramics as a tool for the chemical formulations of ceramics and for the impurity testing of raw materials, because of their sensitivity, wide elemental analysis range and simple sample preparation techniques to obtain good results. Also being a surface analysis we can easily identify the features of colouring agents, especially in the case of glazed tiles. \r\n\r\nSummarizing, X-ray spectroscopy can be used in the ceramic investigations in many different ways, from identifying raw materials to quantifying minerals and contaminants in those materials, as well as in the finishes that are applied to the finished ceramic products, in order to identify the technology used for production.\r\n\r\nAs one example, we will review the potential of X-ray spectroscopy in the research of Islamic ceramics found in Spain. The aim of the work is to study and characterize two characteristic glazes existing at the facade of the Palace of Pedro I (Sevilla, Spain) in order to determine the composition, and some technological features (such as thickness and elemental mapping profiles), thus establishing the techniques of production. Ceramic samples were dated from the 10th to the 14th centuries coated with green and purple glazes. From the combined use of XRF, XRD and small-spot XRF we determined the chemistry of the bulk body, the composition of glaze and the distribution in depth of elements involved in the glaze.","country":"Espa\u00f1a","institution":"Spanish National Research Council (Espa\u00f1a)","earj":1,"sarx":1,"duration":30,"short_bio":"","cvlink":"https:\/\/drive.google.com\/open?id=0B5OeqF_9a9c3Y1dmcl9yb1M0SzJmdFJiWFg4Zjc5Y2h4OXdR","picture":"http:\/\/sarx2016.nbcgib.uesc.br\/speaker\/8\/picture","email":"ignasi.queralt@idaea.csic.es","cvfile":null,"created_at":"-0001-11-30 00:00:00","updated_at":"2016-08-22 17:01:26","lecture":"X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY IN THE STUDY OF OLD CERAMIC TILES","abstract":"X-ray spectroscopy (XRS) is used in the present ceramic industry to non-destructively analyse raw materials, to control the mineral transformations during firing, to characterize chemicals for the glazing and the quality of finishes. X-ray spectrometry is a technique that lends itself well to these needs. Generally speaking, this technique is nondestructive, rapid and can address some very important issues such as elemental composition, the crystallographic arrangement of those elements, and the quantification of elements and compounds. The two main tools of X-ray spectroscopy with application for the study of ceramic products are X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). These technologies are well-established and used in many other industries to answer the same questions of elemental composition and how those elements are structured.
\r\n
\r\nAll ceramics have one thing in common, which is the thermal transformation of the original soft minerals to produce a hard compact body, constituted to form a hard solid consisting of minerals other than those existing in the raw materials. The final constituents of ceramic will depend of the nature of raw materials and the thermal treatment. If we think about some of the historic ceramics, we can try to investigate from the remains the thermal treatment applied to shape the ceramic body. XRD is suited to identify the types of clays in the raw materials but also the mineral composition of final ceramic product.
\r\n
\r\nXRF spectroscopy has been applied in present ceramics as a tool for the chemical formulations of ceramics and for the impurity testing of raw materials, because of their sensitivity, wide elemental analysis range and simple sample preparation techniques to obtain good results. Also being a surface analysis we can easily identify the features of colouring agents, especially in the case of glazed tiles.
\r\n
\r\nSummarizing, X-ray spectroscopy can be used in the ceramic investigations in many different ways, from identifying raw materials to quantifying minerals and contaminants in those materials, as well as in the finishes that are applied to the finished ceramic products, in order to identify the technology used for production.
\r\n
\r\nAs one example, we will review the potential of X-ray spectroscopy in the research of Islamic ceramics found in Spain. The aim of the work is to study and characterize two characteristic glazes existing at the facade of the Palace of Pedro I (Sevilla, Spain) in order to determine the composition, and some technological features (such as thickness and elemental mapping profiles), thus establishing the techniques of production. Ceramic samples were dated from the 10th to the 14th centuries coated with green and purple glazes. From the combined use of XRF, XRD and small-spot XRF we determined the chemistry of the bulk body, the composition of glaze and the distribution in depth of elements involved in the glaze."}}