EARJ 2016 Confirmed Lectures

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Claudio Prado de Mello

Instituto de Pesquisa Histórica e Arqueológica do Rio de Janeiro
FULL CV

CONTEXTOS DE ARQUEOLOGIA URBANA E PESQUISA NO RIO DE OBRAS

A Arqueologia Urbana no RJ passou por um optimum nos últimos anos tendo como foco os interesses das obras olímpicas.

Considerando que hoje quase a totalidade da pesquisa arqueológica no Brasil esta relacionada ao Licenciamento da Engenharia, estas obras foram responsáveis pela descoberta de vários sítios na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, trazendo a luz uma serie diversificada de descobertas e tudo isso somado irá trazer um grande Conhecimento sobre a ocupação da cidade e do Estado do Rio de Janeiro a partir do momento em que houver divulgação dessas descobertas e maior interação entre as equipes que trabalharam nessas pesquisas.

No caso, podemos compartilhar informações sobre alguns sitios e em especial do Sitio Arqueológico da Leopoldina aonde encontramos material pré-histórico das fases sambaquieiras e tupi-guarani e dos períodos colonial e imperial.

Na Leopoldina, foi realizada uma escavação parcial e inconclusa da área e nos setores escavados foram encontrados mais de 220 mil itens em apenas quatro meses de trabalho (entre Março e Agosto de 2013. A jazida arqueologia se inicia a cerca de 30 centímetros da superfície e se aprofunda ate cerca de 2,80 e a previsão no futuro é de coletar mais de 2 milhões de artefatos. Nessas camadas vemos peças de louça, osso, marfim, cerâmica, stoneware, vidro, porcelana, couro e até peças de ouro que mostram detalhes inusitados do cotidiano da elite da sociedade do Rio de Janeiro de séculos e milênios passados. O mais incrível é que uma significativa parte do acervo foi encontrada intacta. A cronologia desses artefatos é principalmente dos séculos XVIII e XIX, mas também encontramos peças dos séculos XVII, XVI. E como um sítio arqueológico multicomponencial, alem dos remanescentes do Matadouro Imperial da cidade, encontramos material indígena da fase Tupi-Guarani (provavelmente associada a tribo de Araribóia que ocupou as proximidades) e surpreendentemente foram detectados material arqueológico de um Sambaqui que existiu nas proximidades e fruto de remanejamento de solos, que ocorreu na região de São Cristovão no processo de planificação da região.

Temos inúmeras possibilidades de pesquisa científica posterior, pois encontramos ate vidros lacrados com líquidos preservados no interior, alem de uma variedade surpreendente de artefatos de varias categorias que podem ser analisadas sob a luz da Ciência.Estes materiais, tem também um contraponto interessante na ótica da Arqueometria. Ao longo das ultimas décadas, itens similares e provenientes de antigas coleções na Europa - igualmente antigos e encontrados na Inglaterra, Holanda, Alemanha, França, Bélgica e tambem USA - foram adquiridos e somados a coleção do Museu da Humanidade (IPHARJ) e hoje fazem parte de uma coleção expressiva de artefatos que permitem comparações quanto a forma, materiais e técnicas de manufatura, bem como analises do desgaste de um mesmo artefato sob condições diversas de intempéries e deterioração e outros não.

Todo esse conhecimento somado, farão parte de um grande projeto baseado no Reino Unido ( What the Victorians Threw Away) e que circunstanciam e contextualizam a Arqueologia Vitoriana de um modo abrangente e inusitadamente globalizado para os idos do século XIX.
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Cristina Vázquez

University of Buenos Aires
FULL CV

Portable RAMAN for in situ analysis of pigments

Raman measurements provides advantages over others analytical instrumental methods considering it does not require sample pre-treatment performing the analysis on direct contact with the sample. The development of handheld Raman spectrometers has drastically changed the way the archaeometrics conducts research in order to simplify, protect and facilitated the analysis of cultural heritage, especially for murals and rock paintings.The aim of this presentation is to show the use of portable Raman for the investigation of pigment composition, the raw materials and supply sources used by the ancient inhabitants in Northpatagonia, Argentina, in their own environment. This project was organized as a measurement campaign in order to study rock art paintings, in situ. To identify compounds and pigments, as well as degradation products of the rock, it was used a portable Raman. This equipment has recently been used to study rock art in Spain, France and South Africa. While fixed equipment are not new, so far, analysis by a portable Raman has not been reported even in Northpatagonia. This means that it is not necessary, in the latter case, to extract a piece of sample for analysis, resulting in a nondestructive and simple technique to implement in place.
The research focuses on the identification of different materials used in order to account for some possible temporal and / or spatial relationships. The distinction between possible colored clay and crushed rocks, especially the effect of painting on rock substrates, provide valuable information on manufacturing techniques and production processes developed by hunter-gatherers in the area. It could also determine the local "palette" of the natives.
The study was conducted in three different areas:
1. Sites at Traful area, the shelters: Los Cipreses, Las Mellizas and Río Blanco (Aldazábal, 2007, 2014; Silveira, 2013);
2. Sites at Valle Encantado (Maqui shelter, del Ocho cave)
3. Near San Carlos de Bariloche, the shelters: Queutrei Malef, Los Rápidosr; Moreno Laker, El Trébol and Cerro Campanario (Albornoz, 2000).
In a first stage, Raman measurements were conducted by scientists at the University of Ghent, Belgium (Rousaki, 2015). In a second stage, the technical results will be interpreted in context, in an interdisciplinary way, by Argentinean archaeologists involved in these areas. Complementarily, information on material degradation processes by the environment will provide the knowledge for better conservation and preservation of the paintings.
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Giovanni Ettore Gigante

Sapienza University of Rome
FULL CV

Welding an soldering by the Moche pre-columbian civilization in the. tombs "SEÑOR DE SIPÁN" and "SEÑORA DE CAO"

On the north coast of present-day Peru flourished between 1200 BC and 1375 AD approximately, various relevant civilizations : Cupisnique (1200-200 BC) Chavín (1000-200 BC), Vicús and Frías (200 BC - 300 AD), Moche (100 B.C. to 600 A.D), Sicán (700-1375 AD) .
Among the, the most important, from the point of view of metallurgical ability, was the Moche civilization (also called Mochica) .
The Moche civilization flourished in areas south of the Vicús, in the Moche and Chicama valleys, where its great ceremonial centres have been discovered from around 100 BC to 600 AD, producing painted pottery, monuments and gold ornaments. The Vicús and Moche cultures thrived within a relatively short distance of each other. The Moche were known as sophisticated metal smiths , both in terms of their technology, and the beauty of the produced jewels.
The Moche metalworking ability was impressively demonstrated when Walter Alva and co - workers discovered in 1987 the “Tumbas Reales de Sipán” and, more recently, when Regulo Franco Jordan discovered in 2005 the tomb of the “Lady of Cao . Spectacular gold and silver funerary ornaments were excavated, and are now exposed in the Museum “Tumbas Reales de Sipán” in Lambayeque, close to Chiclayo and in the site Museum of Cao, about 60 km north to Trujillo . The two tombs are dated approximately 3rd- 4th Century AD.
As explained in a previous paper , also after five campaigns of analysis of the artifacts from the tombs of Sipán and Ciao, many questions remained open, i.e.:
-why the Moche used to put relatively high quantities of Gold, up to about 30%, in the Silver sheets of the tomb of the lady of Cao ?
-why the Golds from the tomb of Cao have all approximately the same composition, differently from the tomb of Sipán, where the Gold composition is completely erratic ?
-How were welded and soldered the Gold and Silver sheets ?
To try to answer to the last question a sub-millimetric EDXRF portable equipment was developed to focus the X-rays onto a surface of about 1 mm2 and carry out detailed step by step millimetric measurements to scan the Au/Ag interface of several nose ornaments ; further radiographic measurements were carried out with special attention to the interfaces.
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Ignasi Queralt

Spanish National Research Council
FULL CV

X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY IN THE STUDY OF OLD CERAMIC TILES

X-ray spectroscopy (XRS) is used in the present ceramic industry to non-destructively analyse raw materials, to control the mineral transformations during firing, to characterize chemicals for the glazing and the quality of finishes. X-ray spectrometry is a technique that lends itself well to these needs. Generally speaking, this technique is nondestructive, rapid and can address some very important issues such as elemental composition, the crystallographic arrangement of those elements, and the quantification of elements and compounds. The two main tools of X-ray spectroscopy with application for the study of ceramic products are X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). These technologies are well-established and used in many other industries to answer the same questions of elemental composition and how those elements are structured.

All ceramics have one thing in common, which is the thermal transformation of the original soft minerals to produce a hard compact body, constituted to form a hard solid consisting of minerals other than those existing in the raw materials. The final constituents of ceramic will depend of the nature of raw materials and the thermal treatment. If we think about some of the historic ceramics, we can try to investigate from the remains the thermal treatment applied to shape the ceramic body. XRD is suited to identify the types of clays in the raw materials but also the mineral composition of final ceramic product.

XRF spectroscopy has been applied in present ceramics as a tool for the chemical formulations of ceramics and for the impurity testing of raw materials, because of their sensitivity, wide elemental analysis range and simple sample preparation techniques to obtain good results. Also being a surface analysis we can easily identify the features of colouring agents, especially in the case of glazed tiles.

Summarizing, X-ray spectroscopy can be used in the ceramic investigations in many different ways, from identifying raw materials to quantifying minerals and contaminants in those materials, as well as in the finishes that are applied to the finished ceramic products, in order to identify the technology used for production.

As one example, we will review the potential of X-ray spectroscopy in the research of Islamic ceramics found in Spain. The aim of the work is to study and characterize two characteristic glazes existing at the facade of the Palace of Pedro I (Sevilla, Spain) in order to determine the composition, and some technological features (such as thickness and elemental mapping profiles), thus establishing the techniques of production. Ceramic samples were dated from the 10th to the 14th centuries coated with green and purple glazes. From the combined use of XRF, XRD and small-spot XRF we determined the chemistry of the bulk body, the composition of glaze and the distribution in depth of elements involved in the glaze.
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Jose Antonio Henao Martínez

Industrial University of Santander
FULL CV

Aplicación de la Difracción de Rayos-X al estudio de materiales líticos de comunidades Prehistóricas en el río Sogamoso, Colombia

En esta ponencia exponemos los resultados de la investigación arqueológica que se realiza en la cuenca media del río Sogamoso al oriente colombiano. A los materiales encontrados en contexto arqueológico, correspondientes a sitios de vivienda, se les aplicó análisis de DRX, para ayudar a inferir la ocupación humana y sus estrategias de gestión de recursos litológicos. En la arqueología americana, la etapa de cazadores recolectores se ha expresado en determinadas estrategias de supervivencia y el desarrollo de una tecnología lítica especializada con rasgos específicos de orden técnico derivados de las características físicas de rocas y minerales.

En la conexión, necesidades humanas, tecnología lítica y características físicas de materiales es donde toma importancia la colaboración científica entre la Arqueología y la Fisicoquímica, orientada a esclarecer en diferentes momentos de la historia humana las formas de explotación y el uso de recursos abióticos como alternativas de supervivencia humana. Y, es aquí en donde los exámenes técnicos como DRX, sobre rocas base y en gredas (tierra-barro) que sirvieron de materias primas para ser transformadas en herramientas y vasijas cerámicas, respectivamente, reciben de la DRX una información valiosa para las inferencias arqueológicas. En síntesis, en nuestros estudio, los exámenes técnicos de DRX nos ayudaron a inferir procesos de gestión de recursos y ocupación de territorios a través de procesos de migración en épocas tempranas.
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Julio Cesar Latini Stutz

Universidade Estácio de Sá (UNESA)
FULL CV

Técnicas de prototipação rápida e suas aplicações para manipulação, conservação, restauração e disponibilização de bens culturais

Os acervos culturais em sua grande maioria são formados por objetos únicos e raros que demandam condições de acondicionamento, manipulação e manutenção muitos específicos. Estas características restringem enormemente as formas de interação dos visitantes/estudiosos com estes bens culturais. Muitas vezes este bem cultural fica restrito a uma exibição em uma vitrine em um local específico, dificultando o acesso da grande parte da população a este acervo. Tradicionalmente, para aumentar a oferta destes bens ao público é comum a confecção de réplicas em escala, principalmente dos objetos tridimensionais, porém algumas das técnicas de replicação não se aplicavam para todos os tipos de bens culturais.

Com a evolução das ferramentas de aquisição de imagens, das técnicas de modelagem 3D utilizando software CAD e das novas tecnologias de prototipação rápidas, um leque muito grande se abre criando novas oportunidades de conservação, restauração e disponibilização detes bens culturais.

Esta palestra tem como objetivo apresentar as principais técnicas de aquisição e modelagem 3D, apresentar as diversas tecnologias de prototipação rápida e vislumbrar algumas aplicações práticas
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Márcia de Almeida Rizzutto

São Paulo University
FULL CV

A interdisciplinariedade entre as áreas para estudo do Patrimônio Histórico Cultural

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Nick Schiavon

University of Évora
FULL CV

X-Ray analytical techniques applied to Archaelogy and Cultural Heritage: challenges and opportunities

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Tim Fawcett

The International Centre for Diffraction Data
FULL CV

METHODS FOR USING THE POWDER DIFFRACTION FILE™ IN CULTURAL HERITAGE STUDIES

The analysis of cultural heritage objects often presents numerous challenges to the analyst. The objects are often priceless and need to be analyzed in a non-invasive and non-destructive manner. The materials themselves can be crystalline, non-crystalline or partially crystalline and are frequently complex mixtures and blends. Fundamental assumptions used in the field of powder diffraction of having a well-crystalline, randomly oriented powder in the perfect focal position of the diffractometer are rarely achieved and often impossible to obtain. This means data are collected from an imperfect specimen then are compared to data from perfect references in order to identify the materials of interest.

The Powder Diffraction File was first published 75 years ago in 1941. The first issue of The Powder Diffraction File (PDF™) in 1941, not only contained a database, but the data were sorted in a specific sequence, so that one could use a file index and search/match process (Hanawalt system) to identify unknowns.[1] Today's databases uses a relational database format with JAVA interfaces so that the data can be sorted and displayed. Embedded software uses 65 searches and 119 display fields all of which can be combined to produce an almost infinite variety of data mining possibilities. The data entries themselves not only contain diffraction data but also nomenclature, structural classifications, crystallographic and physical property data. To help scientists analyze "imperfect" data the ICDD has developed a number of embedded algorithms including means of analyzing crystallize size, specimen displacement and molecular orientation that are necessary in the analysis of solid objects versus random powders. The database uses a system of 52 subfiles and subclassification to assist in targeting the appropriate materials for the appropriate analysis. The classification system includes fundamental subfiles on metals, alloys and minerals but also subfiles on pigments and dyes, polymers (including many natural products), ceramics and cements. Fundamentally this means that we many not only be able to identify the material but characterize its crystallite size and molecular orientation which may be signatures on how and when the object was fabricated.